Category Archives: Student Experience

Laughing with Mary Beard. And a (not so) Laughing Cavalier.

Beard. And the Colosseum.

Beard. And the Colosseum.

Last night I went to hear Prof. Mary Beard–esteemed Cambridge don, TV presenter and keen blogger–deliver a lecture at the Cheltenham Literature Festival on the topic of laughter in ancient Rome, which is also the subject of Beard’s latest book: Laughter in Ancient Rome. On Joking, Tickling and Cracking Up.

The lecture, as we’d expect, was brilliant. Mary exhibited a masterful, and often playful, combination of overwhelming intelligence and an endearing ability to deal with complex ideas in an accessible way, without coming across as at all patronising. (As a non-Classicist, I followed the whole thing and didn’t feel inadequate at any point.) The talk essentially asked: what did Romans laugh at? when did they laugh? and what does this tell us about society, politics, and power relations in ancient Rome?

Bust of Commodus as Hercules, 2ndC AD, Capitoline Museum

Bust of Commodus as Hercules, 2ndC AD, Capitoline Museum

For instance, let us consider–as we did with Mary–the story related by the Roman historian and politician Cassius Dio in his enormous eighty-volume history of Rome from the the 3rd century CE. The story takes us back to the Colosseum in the year 192 CE. Dio is sat in the front row (where the important people sat, with women and slaves packed in at the back, 100ft above the Colosseum’s arena floor) watching (squinting if you’re a woman or slave) the emperor Commodus parading himself about in an elaborate display of Imperial might that dragged on for 14 whole days; on one day, Commodus slew 100 bears, on another he participated in scripted gladiatorial combat, etc. Word had got out before this spectacle that Commodus had intended to masquerade as Hercules (as he was apparently prone to doing–see the above bust of Commodus-as-Hercules from the Capitoline museum) and fire deadly arrows into the assembled crowd, and this provides the backdrop to the episode that caused Dio’s laughter. In Dio’s words:

[The emperor] killed an ostrich, cut off its head, and came over to where we were sitting, holding up the head… and the bloody sword. He said absolutely nothing, but with a grin he shook his own head, making it clear that he would do the same to us. And in fact many would have been put to death on the spot by the sword for laughing at [the emperor]… if I had not myself taken some laurel leaves from my garland and chewed on them, and persuaded the others [to do the same]… so that, by continually moving our mouths, we might hide the fact that we were laughing.

So it’s basically an ancient instance of biting your lip. And it’s interestIng, as Mary explained, because it gives us a sense that we are experiencing Roman life, and laughter, at first hand, and it provokes the modern scholar to address what it is in this episode that Dio found funny, what the episode tells us about the relationships between emperor and his subjects in ancient Rome, and gets us to think about the social function of laughter: Is Dio’s laughter an act of insubordination, a mocking of, via the medium of laughter, the pumped-up pretensions of the emperor; or is it (what we’d call these days) nervous laughter? And, for that matter, what kinds of problems, methodological and empirical, does such a question pose for the modern historian?

All this was dead interesting. But what struck me was the resonance that all this has with my own work on Pieter Bruegel. I was lucky enough to get to chat to Mary afterwards, and I mentioned how her interest in laughter in the ancient world mirrored by interest in laughter in the 16th century in the Netherlands, and, in particular, the question of whether people laughed at Bruegel’s pictures of peasants or not, which, as I’ve said before, has been the subject of great controversy since the 1970s. Did people really laugh at Bruegel’s representations of the rural poor? And was this laughter, if there ever was any, condescending? Or was it democratising–a Rebelaisian carnivalesque form of laughter that acts a social leveller (according to Bakhtin’s classic study)? And, what’s more, what evidence is there that can support our view either way? Can we ever really know what people laughed at in their lounges and dining rooms in the 1550s and ’60s (just like can we ever know what Dio found funny sitting in front of an ostrich-head-wielding Commodus in the Colosseum in 192?)?

Bruegel, Peasant Wedding, c.1568, Kunsthistorisches, Vienna

Bruegel, Peasant Wedding, c.1568, Kunsthistorisches, Vienna

This is where the (not) Laughing Cavalier comes in. We all know Frans Hals’s picture of a Cavalier because the sitter is laughing; its fame rests, by and large, on the fact that the sitter is a jolly chap, enjoying a giggle at this or that. But, as Mary pointed out (and perhaps this is in the literature on Hals already, but I am no expert), the portrait of the cavalier only earned its title of “Laughing Cavalier” about a century ago. Before then, the picture was notable (if written descriptions of it are anything to go by) because of the curly moustache that the sitter is sporting. In other words, modern sensibilities find that the portrait shows a laughing man, whereas this was lost on, or else wasn’t considered to be the most striking aspect of the picture for, earlier viewers. This was one of Mary’s chief points. That although the sound of laughter, and for that matter the rendering of that sound in print–“hahahae” in Terence’s 161 BCE Eunuch–is remarkably universal, what rouses that laughter is not universal, and has changed over the course of history as  sensibilities and cultural conventions likewise adapt.

Frans Hals, "Laughing" Cavalier, 1624, Wallace Collection, London

Frans Hals, “Laughing” Cavalier, 1624, Wallace Collection, London

This is all germane to my work and is certainly food for thought. Can we ever reconstruct what Bruegel’s audience found funny? Did people really laugh at peasants? Peasants in art, for that matter? On the face of it Bruegel’s Peasant Wedding Feast isn’t funny, but is this a bit like Hals’s Cavalier, which is to say that do we struggle to see what was funny in Bruegel’s picture because we are no longer socially predisposed to find the poor intrinsically funny? Is it the case that mockery of the poor is nowadays considered taboo, morally reprehensible, and that this is quite different to the situation in the 16th century, which scarcely batted an eyelid at serfdom?

Finally, in case you’re wondering, are Roman jokes from Antiquity funny? Did we indeed laugh along with Mary? Well, none of the jokes related by Mary in her lecture roused genuinely raucous laughter (indeed this was part of her point about the socio-historical contingency of laughter, and not a criticism) but one of them, which only came out during the brief Q&A at the end of the lecture, was a gem, and, what’s more, is a joke told by a woman (women otherwise frequently being the butt of jokes rather than the teller of jokes!). It’s preserved in Macrobius’s Saturnalia and the comic is Julia, daughter of the emperor Augustus, who was, on all accounts, infamously promiscuous. The joke goes:

When those who knew of [Julia's] disgraceful behaviour were amazed how her sons looked like her husband Agrippa even though she gave her body to any Tom, Dick, or Harry to enjoy, she said, “I never take on a passenger unless the ship’s hold is full.”

Simply, hilarious. Surely as funny now as it must’ve been in Antiquity! As for why it’s funny? Perhaps Mary’s book sheds light . . .

Jamie Edwards

A Sixteenth-Century Summer: Rosalind Burgin talks about working on an Undergraduate Research Scholarship

When I was procrastinating on campus during the spring term 2014, I decided to leaf through the ‘paid summer scholarship opportunities’ that had been emailed to my student account. I fell in love with one of the project outlines for an Undergraduate Researcher. The Undergraduate Research Scholarship (UGRS) scheme gives UG students the opportunity to work as a paid research assistant for 5 weeks over the summer, under the (refreshingly relaxed) supervision of an academic. It sounded more appealing than bar work to say the least. The project that caught my eye was entitled “Anne de Graville at the French Court: Her Library, her Religion and her Works” and was being run by Dr Elizabeth L’Estrange in the Department of Art History, Film and Visual Studies. Anne was an enigmatic noblewoman in the early sixteenth century, who owned a fascinating library and composed two known literary works at the behest of Queen Claude of France, wife of the more famous Francis I. One of these works was a reworking of Boccaccio’s Teseida, which was also the inspiration for Chaucer’s Knights Tale in which two knights fight for the hand of Emilia; the other was an adaptation of Alain Chartier’s Belle dame sans mercy in which a lady refused the advances of a knight. The aims of the project were enticingly broad: ‘Find out more about the books in her library’, ‘explore the culture of the French court’ and ‘study the implications of Anne’s own works’. Two hours later, I had written, re-written various application drafts, sent off the least pretentious version after seeking the advice of many friends, and embarked upon forcing the whole thing out of my mind before I could get too excited.

Anne de Graville presenting her book to Queen Claude of France

Anne de Graville presenting her reworking of Boccaccio’s Teseida to Queen Claude of France (BnF, Arsenal, ms 5116, fol. 1v)

The second year of my Modern Languages  degree (in French, Italian, and Spanish) had lead to me take an interest in early modern Art History, as some of my preferred modules had been Italian Studies’ classes on Dante and the Italian Renaissance, and the Hispanic Studies’ department’s module on Medieval Iberian literature and culture. I was especially intrigued by portrayals of women as muses of the Italian Renaissance, temptresses of the Middle ages and as various manifestations of the Madonna-Whore dichotomy.

Libro de buen amor

Libro de buen amor – the ‘Book of Good Love’ – one of the main sources studied on the Medieval Iberia module

Upon reading the UGRS brief, I realised that I had never studied works about women, by women. Researching Anne de Graville would be an opportunity not only to investigate the roles and portrayals of women, but also to observe the cloak-and-dagger techniques of early modern women who sought to actively engage in the debate over their position in society without being dismissed as uncourtly, radical rebels.

To my delight, I was offered the scholarship and couldn’t wait to get started. I frequently told my family and friends how excited I was, although there was the persistent fear of ‘Not Finding Anything’. As part of the project I would be meeting regularly with Liz to discuss my progress and findings, and I had nightmarish visions of meekly admitting to her that I had read lots, discovered nothing and had no insights to offer. From here came perhaps the best lesson I learned through the UGRS: research can’t be compared to filling in answers in an exam paper, or gathering enough information to fit the word limit on an essay. I remember Liz telling me to inform her if I came up against ‘dead ends’, and it was refreshing to realise that finding limited resources on one line of enquiry was Okay, and Not Finding Anything can still be progress.

One memory of the project that stands out in my mind is the day that I visited a library in Manchester to investigate a 15th century manuscript relevant to the project. As part of my Medieval Iberian module, I had previously had the opportunity to delve into Birmingham’s own Cadbury Research Library, to pour over manuscripts from the 14th-16th century. I loved how doodles in the margins were not acts of vandalism, but invaluable insights into the reading experience of someone who had handled the works centuries before. During the research project, I had become rather tired of leafing through secondary sources, and I wanted to examine original texts to see for myself what all the fuss was about. One of the main focuses of my research was Alain Chartier’s 15th century work, La Belle Dame Sans Mercy, which Anne de Graville adapted to create one of her own works, the Rondeaux. I knew all about various interpretations and analyses of this important text about courtly love, but it dawned on me that I hadn’t seen any versions of the original work. During a half-hearted Google search, I stumbled across an article on the Chetham’s Library website, featuring “The manuscript of a selection of the works of Alain Chartier (ca. 1385-1430)”. Chetham’s Library is in central Manchester, and I was staying at my parents’ house that was less than an hour away.

Chethams

Slightly ashamed of how excited I was, I picked up the phone to arrange a visit. I felt like a child, phoning up school pretending to be my mother, as I said I was a ‘researcher interested in investigating one of your manuscripts’. They didn’t call me out and expose me as a clumsy 19-year-old Undergrad however, and I set up an appointment to see the manuscript the next day. When I arrived at the library, part of me was expecting to be presented with a protective display case, thick gloves and an overbearing supervisor to protect the 15th century manuscript, even though I knew from my experience in Birmingham that I might just be able to pick it up. I was lead into a grand, wooden-panelled reading room and presented with the text that I had studied so intensely that it felt legendary. I was struck by how sturdy it was, and how vibrant the illuminations were. I spend the whole day gawping at its pages and delving into its history – who had it belonged to, where it had been bought, and could it possibly have passed through any circles relating to Anne de Graville’s court?

chartier1

The opening page of Chetham Library’s copy of Chartier’s works

At the end of the day I photographed the pages most intriguing to me, wrote up any notes I had made on its history, and bid the friendly librarians farewell. I was touched by how pleased they were to see me; they wanted me to keep in touch with any findings that came of my visit to the library, and they were interested in the research project. This ties in to the most poignant thing I have learned through the project: the value of contributing to an academic community, using each other’s materials and developing  existing analyses. I had read about interactions between writers at the early modern court, in that each new text was created as part of a dialogue with previous writers and their works, and it amused me to see this replicated in the study of manuscripts as well. Each new article on La Belle Dame Sans Mercy would address the works of previous academics; just as Anne de Graville’s Rondeaux was her response to Alain Chartier’s original.

Chartier2

The beginning of the Belle dame sans mercy in Chetham’s copy

The scholarship has been an invaluable experience for me, teaching me more about the research process, and how to manage my workload when I don’t have a simple question to answer or goal to reach. My growing interest in early-modern literature has been indulged, and I am becoming increasingly familiar with the study of manuscript culture. Liz’s enthusiasm and encouragement combined with my fascination with the debates that I came across in the articles I read have made the world of academia seem enticing rather than daunting, and I hope this opportunity proves to be an influential one in my future academic choices.

 

Department of Art History, Film and Visual Studies Research Seminar Series 2014 – 15

 

UoB crest

Department of Art History, Film and Visual Studies Research Seminar Series 2014 – 15

Barber Photograph Room, The Barber Institute of Fine Arts, The University of Birmingham

Thursdays 5.15pm

Refreshments served

 

 

AUTUMN TERM

 

Thursday 9 October

Tamar Garb (University College London)

Photo Albums and Fancy Dress: Encounters with the African Archive

(Note the venue for this seminar is: Strathcona Lecture Theatre 1)

 

Thursday 23 October

Sandy Heslop (University of East Anglia)

Of shepherds and sheep: the fortunes of pastoral metaphor in Christian imagery c. 1100

 

Thursday 13 November

Krzysztof Fijalkowski (Norwich University of the Arts)

Cubomania: Collage, destruction and desire

 

Thursday 27 November

Lucy Reynolds (University of Arts London, Central Saint Martins)

A collective response: Feminism, film, performance and Greenham Common

 

Thursday 11 December

Jamie Edwards (University of Birmingham)

Piety, Peasants, Proverbs, and other Peculiar Pictures: Making sense of Pieter Bruegel’s paintings

 

 

SPRING TERM (titles of papers t.b.c.)

Thursday 22 January

Anna Gruetzner-Robins (University of Reading)

 

Thursday 29 January (t.b.c.)

Rosalie van Gulick (Utrecht University; Barber Institute)

 

Thursday 5 February

Richard Taws (University College London)

 

Thursday 26 February

Imogen Wiltshire (University of Birmingham)

 

Thursday 12 March

Gaby Neher (University of Nottingham)

 

Thursday 26 March

Abigail Harrison Moore (University of Leeds)

 

Enquiries Autum term: Jamie Edwards at JLE756@bham.ac.uk

Enquiries Spring term: Imogen Wiltshire at IXW713@bham.ac.uk

Welcoming Professor Tamar Garb – The Department of Art History, Film and Visual Studies Research Seminar Series 2014 – 15

We are pleased to announce that the Department of Art History, Film and Visual Studies will be welcoming Professor Tamar Garb to kick-off this year’s Research Seminar Series on Thursday 9 October. Currently Durning Lawrence Professor in the History of Art at University College London, and recently elected a Fellow of the British Academy, we are thrilled to be hosting Tamar, who will be delivering a lecture about her recent research on African studio portraits:

 

Photo Albums and Fancy Dress: Encounters with the African Archive

 

Weinberg, Nelson Mandela

 Prof. Tamar Garb

Durning Lawrence Professor in the History of Art, University College London

Fellow of the British Academy

Thursday October 9th 2014, 5:15pm, Strathcona Lecture Theatre 1

This lecture will look at the artifice and stageyness of African studio portraits via the project ‘Black Photo Album’ by Santu Mofokeng, the performed veracity of Samuel Fosso’s disguised self representations, and the ubiquity of a specific image of the young Nelson Mandela, widely regardedas ‘traditional’ and authentic. Throughout photographic portraiture is considered as a medium that mobilises the artifice of the studio, fancy dress and costume in the production of photogenic and fitting subjects.

All welcome!

Please also note that the full schedule for the Department’s Research Seminar series will be made available soon.

Please forward enquiries to Jamie Edwards: jle756@bham.ac.uk

Why I like this module… The Political Thriller on Film: Ideology, Genre, Emotion

Grace Higgins, finalist, BA History of Art

Grace Higgins, finalist, BA History of Art

 “One of the most interesting modules I studied at university was The Political Thriller on Film. The module, which looks at the film genre of the Political Thriller, explores how film makers since the 1960s have used the genre as a vehicle to explore the ongoing challenges and controversies of a highly politicised modern world. Having not previously had the chance to study film, the course has given me the opportunity to apply my visual analytical skills in a different way, alongside learning key theoretical concepts, exploring response to film and the debates raised.

Discussion and participation are heavily encouraged, as every other week we have the chance to respond directly to films we have watched, which range from the The Parallax View, the American thriller based on the investigation of the assassination of a senator, to The Battle of Algiers, about the urban guerrilla warfare used by Algeria to gain independence from France.”

Untitled2 Untitled3

This final year 20-credit module:

  • Untitled4Is taught by Dr Alex Marlow-Mann, a specialist of European and especially Italian cinema
  • Explores the evolution of the political thriller on film from the 1960s – present in a range of national and political contexts
  • analyses if and how the genre of political thriller can be used as a vehicle for political change
  • Examines questions of audience engagement

Why I like this module… Michelangelo

Jamie Edwards, PhD Student, UoB

Jamie Edwards, PhD Student, UoB

“I jumped at the chance to take David’s course on Michelangelo for the third year of my Art History degree. I had studied 15th-century art and architecture with David in the second year and wanted to develop my interest in Renaissance art to much greater depth, and this seemed like the perfect opportunity to do just that. David’s expertise, not to mention his infectious enthusiasm, fully brought to life Michelangelo’s world and his famous works such as the David. The course considers Michelangelo’s life and output, from his rise to fame in the Medici Untitled5household, through to the Sistine Chapel ceiling, and on to his final works of sculpture and architecture. It also puts Michelangelo’s art in its cultural context: how does Michelangelo’s representation of the body fit in with contemporary debates about beauty and a polemic about style? What is the Sistine ceiling all about, really? Along the way, the artist’s “challenging” character was also revealed to us through the analysis of contemporary sources, notably Giorgio Vasari’s Life of Michelangelo. In all, the Michelangelo course was thoroughly fascinating, enjoyable and intellectually stimulating, and it led in no small part to my decision to research 16th-century art at postgraduate level, which I am still doing now (… some 4 years later … happily still under the influence of David’s unabated enthusiasm!).”

Untitled6

This final year special subject:Untitled7

  • Is taught by David Hemsoll, a specialist in the art and architecture of Renaissance Italy
  • Focuses on the wide-ranging works of Michelangelo, identifying his artistic objectives, his special achievements, his influence and his reputation.
  • Explores the artistic context within which Michelangelo worked
  • Examines critically both primary and secondary written and visual sources

Why I like this module… Fashioning Flesh and Technology: Modernism and the Body in Germany 1918-1933

Sarah Cowie, finalist, BA English and History of Art

Sarah Cowie, finalist, BA English and History of Art

Fashioning Flesh and Technology is one of the most fascinating modules I’ve taken at Birmingham. The topics explored range from technology and its effect on the war veteran’s body to mass culture and the New Woman, providing a thorough examination of how artists, architects, designers, and filmmakers responded to the dramatic social and political changes incurred in Germany’s interwar years. In particular, I have enjoyed the opportunity to study the representation of the mechanised body in films such as Fritz Lang’s Metropolis and postwar trauma in Robert Wiene’s The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. The experience has challenged the way in which I analyse imagery, as well as informing my English Literature Dissertation on fiction and cinematography. The seminars encourage group debate on the diverse topics introduced in the lectures, with both contemporary textual sources (for example, the writings of Freud, Kracauer, and Benjamin) and more recent scholarship on the body in modern visual culture enriching these discussions. The material covered and the interdisciplinary approach has really suited my interest in European modern art and has certainly inspired me to consider further study in this area.”

Untitled2 Untitled3

This final year special subject :

  • Untitled4is taught by Dr Camilla Smith, a specialist in the visual cultures of England, Switzerland and the Weimar Republic
  • Considers the concept of German Modernism in relation to discourses on real and imagined bodies from 1918-1933
  • uses a range of visual, textual and film sources to explore Modernism’s relationship to themes such as the metropolis, mass culture, technology and sexuality
  • analyses works by artists and authors such as Freud, Foucault, Loos, Dix, and Schenker

Why I like this module… Making Cultures: New Ways of Reading Things

Chloe Lund, BA History of Art, 2013

Chloe Lund, BA History of Art, 2013

“This module encourages students to critically engage with the material world by considering how objects make and reflect culture. Each week, sessions are delivered by a different University department, including the Research and Cultural Collections, Lapworth Museum, the Centre for West African Studies, the Medical School, the Barber Institute, and Winterbourne Gardens.”

“The content of the classes is exceptionally diverse and we had a go at some of the tasks involved in the professional roles of our session leaders, such as writing museum labels, curating a display of objects from Special Collections, making a wax model for casting, and planning an activity to engage a target group with a work of art. We were also treated to a number of behind-the-scenes tours and demonstrations, including watching a rock being sliced open to reveal a splendid fossil in the Geology Department! Class discussions were especially interesting because the group was comprised of students from many different cultural and academic backgrounds. As well as improving my understanding of the use and interpretation of objects of culture, I would say that taking Making Cultures has really enriched my University experience. It is a fantastic opportunity to learn about the University beyond my own department, and presents the privileged chance to explore its rich collections.”

Untitled2 Untitled3

This second year MOMD module:

  • draws on the University’s extensive range of museums, collections and archives and the expertise of arts and science academics and heritage professionals.
  • Involves object-based learning in its broadest sense, enabling students to critically engage with the material world.
  • focuses on issues around the collection, interpretation and display of material culture; current debates about ‘ownership’, ethics and public engagement; and the impact of new digital technologies
  • Is assessed by a reflective learning journal and a portfolio of evidence linked to specific artefacts and collections

 

 

 

Why I like this module… Visual Cultures of Revolution in France

Rebecca Ingram, finalist, BA History of Art

Rebecca Ingram, finalist, BA History of Art

“We all know of the infamous events that bloodied the streets of Paris between the years 1789-1848, but this era is also remarkable for the way in which the social upheaval brought about a radical change in the significance of art for the French commoner. I enjoy this module immensely because the story of visual cultures of this era is unique: the module covers not only the production of pro-revolutionary imagery, but the entire re-imagining of the power of images as well as the symbolic destruction of images. This module is about understanding the potency of art through the eyes of an eighteenth-century Parisian.

 Dr Richard Clay’s enthusiasm is so engaging and the way he incorporates his own ideas is particularly exciting. For example, he has shown us that what historians have previously considered to be the mindless vandalism of regency Paris was in fact deliberate iconoclasm, and that this played a key role in asserting the republican sensibilities.”Untitled2

Untitled3  Untitled4

This final year module:

  • analyses the roles of visual cultures during the revolutions of 1789 and 1830, the rise and fall of Napoleon, the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and its fall. Untitled5
  • examines the continuities and changes in the production, display and reception of paintings and prints during this time in France.
  • explores the training of artists, the development of museums, and periods of iconoclasm
  • analyses works by artists such as David, Boilly, Isobey, Gérard, Rowlandson, Gillray, Géricault, Delacroix, and Daumier

 Dr Richard Clay convenes this module. To get a taste of what the module is all about check out his BBC 4 documentary, Tearing Up History.

Why I like this module… Inside Out: Interiors and Interiority in French Art, Design and Visual Culture, 1840-1940

Claire Lawley, finalist, BA History of Art

Claire Lawley, finalist, BA
History of Art

“Inside Out is a very engaging and well-structured module. Not only do we cover a large period of history (1840-1940), but we also explore a large range of artists and movements. Until studying this module, I had not considered how the interior of a room could signify so many messages, and how this can be linked to the interiority of the figures that inhabit the space. Studying the Nabis has been one of my highlights, in particular Edouard Vuillard who painted many figures of his mother within the domestic sphere. There have been many topics to cover, all of which have given me in depth knowledge, and new perspectives of looking at interiors of French art. I am very glad I chose this module for my Special Subject!”

 Untitled2    Untitled3    Untitled4

 This final year special subject

  • Untitled5is taught by Dr Francesca Berry, a specialist in French art and design, the representation of interiors, and feminist theories
  • analyses the changing uses and meanings of the interior and notions of interiority in French art, design and visual culture 1840-1940.
  • considers a range of media, including painting, photography, magazines and film,
  • debates the practices of key figures including Degas, Cassatt, Vuillard, Matisse, Atget, Mallet-Stevens and Le Corbusier
  • analyses the interiors produced by Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Cubism, Art Deco and Surrealism.
  • considers visual forms in relation to artistic and architectural theory, popular psychology and literary
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 292 other followers

%d bloggers like this: